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ZIGGURAT (CHOGA ZANBIL)
On the road that leads from Ahwaz to the north, after about 130 kilometers, a detour to the right takes place, which continues for 25 kilometers in a semi-desert plain to the remains of Dur-Untash, Elamite capital of the XIII century BC, where the Ziggurat stands out. preserved in the Mesopotamian area.
The true tiered tower, or Ziggurat, is found only at the end of III mell years BC, starting from the 3rd dynasty of Ur, and can be three, five or seven floors.
The Ziggurat (Choga Zanbil), restored with the Unesco contributions, is built in raw bricks with a coating of baked bricks of about 2.50 meters thick.
It was built by a sovereign Elamite, Untash-Gal, and dedicated to the god Inshushinak: it is square, measuring at the base of 105 meters on the side, had five terraces built by four massifs that fit one into the other. The Ziggurat was not therefore built from terraces with increasingly reduced surface, placed one on top of the other: all the massifs that had to form these terraces departed from the virgin soil. The fifth floor, which formed the top of the Ziggurat and rose about fifty meters high, was built by the upper temple, of which there is nothing left. This temple was the residence of God, the point from which he descended on earth.
A lower temple was closely associated with the upper temple, where the deity took contact with the faithful: for this reason the lower temple was the richest in furnishings and decorations. Only at Ziggurat this temple was an integral part of the Ziggurat, and consisted of the tower of the first floor, in the middle east of the south-east side. In contrast, in the Mesopotamian tradition, these types of temples were a short distance from the tower. In front of the steep staircase leading to the temple, rich in bricks with cuneiform writings of Untash-Gal, there is a table to offer, originally in polychrome enamelled bricks. Nothing remained of the rich supporter of the lower temple, despite its position sheltered by the wall of the Ziggurat, and the entrance door that could be locked with a bar that slid into the hole of a large stone stuck in the wall perpendicular to the bolt. On the first wall of the Ziggurat the times of Kiririsha and Gal have been identified, outside the temple the Hishnukit temple and a closed area where it was made to channel the water of the nearby river Dez for the sacrificial ceremonies.
Three hundred meters to the south are the foundations of the Untash-Gal palace: inside it there are steep stairs that lead to five underground tombs with vaulted ceilings. Today they are home to only blobs of bats, but when they were discovered there were the cremated remains of unidentified people, laid on funerary beds.
On the ritual that took place at the top of the Ziggurat we have only some late news.
On the roof of the temple the god offered meat of ox, mutton and birds, and then beer with wine, cedar and aromatic powder. The sacrificial tables were slanted because the blood of the victims had to flow in a jar placed under the flooring. The sacrifices were to take place in the presence of the royal couple; then, at the end of the ceremony, the assembly moved not far away, near a libations pot near a well. A little further on we reached the offering table, built in front of the entrance to the lower temple, where the royal couple accompanied by a few intimates could enter the presence of the clergy.
The simple faithful not only did not have access to the upper floors of the Ziggurat, but few were also allowed inside the enclosure that surrounded the sacred tower. The great mass of the pilgrims was available in the external brush.
Founded by Untash-Gal, the Ziggurat was destroyed in 640 BC. from the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, at the moment of the absorption of the Elamite realm by the Assyrian one. VIAGGIO IN IRAN , IRAN VIAGGIO, IRAN TRAVEL, IRAN TOUR, IRAN VISA